The modern city of Argos lies on a plane bounded to the west by the hills of Larissa, Prophet Elias, the so called ‘Sheild’, and to the north and east by the bed of the seasonal river Haradros or Kseria. Due to the fact that there has been a human presence in the area since Neolithic times, over 5,500 years ago, the region is among the oldest surviving historical sites in Greece. The important monuments that have survived to the present day, the historical accounts, and the rich mythological tradition, all serve to underline the role that it has played throughout history. The historical periods during which Argos is believed to have flourished are the late Mesohelladic and early Mycenaean, from the 17th to 16th centuries BC, when Argos was the power centre of Argolis, before the founding of the Mycenaean court at Mycenae and Tiryns, as well as the Geometric period, of the 9th and 8th centuries BC, which is connected to the kingdom of Pheidon and the creation of the city. Also important is the Roman period from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD, with the impressive public buildings of the Agora and the theatre. During Byzantine times, Argos was part of the administrative region of the Peloponnese, with Corinth as the capital. From the 9th to the middle of the 15th century the city enjoyed great prosperity, and in 1189 even became a metropolis. The time of the Ottoman occupation was hard for the city, which was razed to the ground in 1397 and 1463. From the 14th century to 1821, control of Argos went back and forth between the Venetians and Ottomans. On the 23rd March 1821 the city of Argos raised the flag of rebellion, and throughout the whole of the struggle it was at the centre of events. It was here in 1821 that the work of the 1st National Council began, which was finished at Neo Epidaurus, as well as the work of the 4th National Council in 1829. General Ioannis Makrygiannis lived in Argos for many years, and it was here that he began to write his memoires. Following independence and to the present day, Argos has become an industrial, commercial, agricultural and cultural centre.